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Badminton

Badminton is a racquet sport in which players hit a shuttlecock through a net with racquets. Although bigger teams can be used, the most popular variants of the game are “singles” (one person each side) and “doubles” (with two players per side). Badminton is frequently played as a recreational outdoor sport in a backyard or on a beach; official games are played on a rectangular indoor court. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it in the half of the court occupied by the opposing team.

Each team may only hit the shuttlecock once before it crosses the net. Play is called off when the shuttlecock hits the floor or when a fault is called by the umpire, service judge, or (in their absence) the opposing side.

The shuttlecock is a feathered or (in casual bouts) plastic projectile that flies differently than many other sports‘ balls. The feathers, in particular, generate far greater drag, forcing the shuttlecock to descend considerably faster. Shuttlecocks have a higher peak speed than other racquet sports balls. The flight of the shuttlecock is what distinguishes the sport.

Shuttlecock games have been played for millennia across Eurasia[a], although the precise origin is unknown. The current name is derived from the Duke of Beaufort’s Badminton House in Gloucestershire, however it is unknown why or when this occurred. Denmark leads play in Europe in a game that has grown in popularity in Asia, with contests often dominated by China, Indonesia, and Thailand. Badminton has been an Olympic Summer sport since 1992, with four events: men’s singles, women’s singles, men’s doubles, and women’s doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At the highest levels of competition, the sport demands great fitness: players must have aerobic stamina, agility, strength, speed, and precision. It is also a technical sport that necessitates strong motor coordination and the development of complex racquet motions.

 

History Of Badminton

Shuttlecock games have been played for millennia across Eurasia, but the contemporary game of badminton emerged in the mid-nineteenth century among the British as a variation of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. (“Battledore” was an earlier name for “racquet.”) Its actual origin is unknown. The name is derived from the Duke of Beaufort’s Badminton House in Gloucestershire, however it is unknown why or when this occurred. A London toy trader called Isaac Spratt produced a pamphlet titled Badminton Battledore – A New Game as early as 1860, but no copy is known to have survived. Badminton is described in an 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine as “battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, over a string hung about five feet from the ground.”

The game may have originated among expatriate officers in British India, where it had become extremely popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a variant of the game played with a wool ball rather than a shuttlecock, was popular in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was first used interchangeably with badminton by the British, with the woollen ball favoured in windy or damp conditions.

Early on, the game was also known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Poona, where it was very popular and where the original rules were written down in 1873. Officers returning home in 1875 established a badminton club in Folkestone. Initially, the sport was played with sides of one to four players, but it rapidly became clear that games of two or four participants functioned best. In outdoor play, the shuttlecocks were covered with India rubber and occasionally weighted with lead. Although the depth of the net was unimportant, it was preferable should it reach the ground.

The sport was played according to the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club changed the rules. Hart and Bagnel Wild updated the regulations once again in 1890. The Badminton Association of England (BAE) established these regulations in 1893 and formally inaugurated the sport on September 13, 1893, at a mansion called “Dunbar” in Portsmouth. In 1899, the BAE held the inaugural badminton championship, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen’s, ladies’, and mixed doubles. Singles tournaments were established in 1900, and in 1904 an England–Ireland championship match was played.

The International Badminton Federation, currently known as the Badminton World Federation, was founded in 1934 by England, Scotland, Wales, Canada, Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, and New Zealand. India became a member as an associate in 1936. International badminton is presently governed by the BWF. Despite being invented in England, Denmark has historically dominated competitive men’s badminton throughout Europe. Asian nations have risen to dominate international competitiveness. China, Denmark, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan (playing as ‘Chinese Taipei’) are among the countries that have regularly produced professional players in recent decades, with China being the most powerful force in both men’s and women’s competition.

In the United States, the game has also become a popular backyard sport.

 

Badminton Rules

Based on the BWF Statutes book, Laws of Badminton, the following information is a condensed explanation of badminton rules.

 

Badminton Court

The court is rectangular in shape and is split into two halves by a net. Courts are often designated for both singles and doubles play, however badminton regulations allow for a court to be marked for solely singles play. The singles court is bigger than the doubles court, although they are both the same length. The exception, which sometimes confuses novice players, is that the serve-length dimension on the doubles court is shorter.

The court’s full width is 6.1 metres (20 feet), however in singles it is lowered to 5.18 metres (17 ft). The court’s total length is 13.4 meters (44 ft). A middle line separating the width of the court, a short service line 1.98 metres (6 foot 6 inch) from the net, and the outside side and back limits define the service courts. The service court in doubles is also designated by a lengthy service line 0.76 metres (2 feet 6 inch) from the back boundary.

The net measures 1.55 metres (5 ft 1 inch) at the sides and 1.524 metres (5 foot) at the center. Even while playing singles, the net posts are set above the doubles sidelines.

The minimum height for the ceiling above the court is not specified in the Badminton Laws. Nonetheless, if the ceiling is likely to be reached on a high serve, a badminton court will not be appropriate.

 

Serving In Badminton

The legal boundaries of a badminton court at different moments of a rally for singles and doubles games.

When the server serves, the shuttlecock must cross the opponent’s court’s short service line or it will be counted as a fault. The server and receiver must stay within their respective service courts, without touching the boundary lines, until the server strikes the shuttlecock. The other two players are free to stand anywhere they choose as long as they do not obstruct the server’s or receiver’s eyesight.

The server and receiver begin the rally in diagonally opposite service courts (see court dimensions). The shuttlecock is struck by the server and lands in the service court of the receiver. This is similar to tennis, except that in a badminton serve, the entire shuttle must be less than 1.15 metres from the court’s surface at the instant of being hit by the server’s racket, the shuttlecock is not allowed to bounce, and unlike tennis, players in badminton stand inside their service courts.

When a rally is lost by the serving side, the server instantly passes to their opponent(s) (this differs from the old system where sometimes the serve passes to the doubles partner for what is known as a “second serve”).

When playing singles, the server stands on the right service court if their score is even, and in the left service court if their score is odd.

If the serving side wins a rally, the same player continues to serve, but he or she switches service courts so that she or he serves to a different opponent each time. If the opponents win the rally and their new score is an even number, the player on the right service court serves; if the score is an odd number, the player on the left service court serves. The service courts of the players are decided by their positions at the start of the preceding rally, not where they were at the end of the rally. As a result of this arrangement, each time a side regains service, the server will be the player who did not serve the previous time.

 

Badminton Scoring

 

Each game is played to a total of 21 points, with players gaining a point anytime they win a rally regardless of whether or not they served[13] (this differs from the old system where players could only win a point on their serve and each game was played to 15 points). A match consists of the best of three games.

If the score is tied at 20–20, the game continues until one side wins a two-point advantage (such as 24–22), unless there is a tie at 29–29, in which case the game proceeds to a golden point of 30. Whoever scores this point is the winner of the game.

The shuttlecock is cast at the start of a match, and the side to which the shuttlecock is pointing serves first. Alternatively, a coin toss may be used, with the winners deciding whether to serve or receive first, or which end of the court to occupy first, and their opponents making the remaining decision.

The preceding game’s victors serve first in following games. Matches are best of three: to win the match, a player or couple must win two games (of 21 points each). The serving pair may choose who serves and the receiving pair may choose who receives in the first rally of each doubles game. The players switch ends at the start of the second game; if the match goes to a third game, they switch ends at the start of the game as well as when the leading player’s or pair’s score reaches 11 points.

 

Lets In Badminton

 

When a let is called, the rally is halted and replayed with no change to the score. Lets can happen as a result of an unanticipated disruption, such as a shuttlecock falling on a court (after being hit there by players on the opposite court) or, in tiny halls, the shuttle touching an overhead rail, which can be classified as a let.

If the receiver is not ready when the service is given, a let is called; however, if the receiver attempts to return the shuttlecock, the receiver is considered to be ready.

 

Badminton Equipment

The design and size of racquets and shuttlecocks are limited by badminton rules.

 

Badminton Racquets

Top-quality badminton racquets weigh between 70 and 95 grams (2.5 and 3.4 ounces) without the grip or strings. They are made of a range of materials, ranging from carbon fiber composite (graphite reinforced plastic) to solid steel, and can be reinforced with a variety of materials. Carbon fiber has a high strength-to-weight ratio, is rigid, and provides good kinetic energy transmission. Prior to the use of carbon fiber composite, racquets were composed of light metals like aluminum. Previously, racquets were constructed of wood. Cheap racquets are still frequently constructed of metals like steel, but hardwood racquets are no longer produced for the general market due to their enormous mass and expense. Nanomaterials like as carbon nanotubes and fullerene are being incorporated to racquets to increase their endurance.

Although the regulations restrict racquet size and shape, there is a broad range of racquet designs. Distinct racquets have different playing characteristics that appeal to certain players. Although the conventional oval head form is still available, an isometric head design is becoming more popular in modern racquets.

 

Strings For Badminton Rackets

 

Badminton strings for racquets are thin, high-performance strings that range in thickness from 0.62 to 0.73 mm. Although thicker strings last longer, many players prefer the feel of thinner strings. String tension is typically in the 80 to 160 N range (18 to 36 lbf). Recreational players often string at lower tensions than pros, ranging from 80 to 110 N. (18 and 25 lbf). Professionals use a string with a tension of between 110 and 160 N. (25 and 36 lbf). Some string makers measure the thickness of their strings under stress, thus when slack, they are thicker than advertised. The Ashaway Micropower is 0.7mm, whereas the Yonex BG-66 is around 0.72mm.

High string tensions are said to improve control, whereas low string tensions boost power. The justifications for this are typically based on poor mechanical logic, such as stating that a lower tension string bed is more bouncy and hence delivers greater power. This is false, because a higher string tension might cause the shuttle to slip off the racquet, making it more difficult to strike a shot properly. Another school of thought is that the best tension for power is determined by the player: the faster and more accurately a player can swing their racquet, the greater the tension for maximum power. Neither viewpoint has been subjected to a serious mechanical investigation, and there is no convincing evidence in favor of either. Experimentation is the most efficient approach for a player to discover a proper string tension.

 

Grip Rules For Badminton

 

A player’s grip allows them to increase the thickness of their racquet handle and select a comfortable surface to grasp on to. Before adding the final layer, a player may build up the handle with one or more grips.

Players can select from a range of grip materials. The most popular options are PU synthetic grips and towelling grips. Personal preference governs grip selection. Sweating is a common issue for players; in this instance, a drying agent may be applied to the grip or hands, sweatbands can be used, the player can pick a different grip material, or they can change their grip more regularly.

Replacement grips and overgrips are the two primary types of grips. Replacement grips are thicker and are frequently utilized to expand the handle’s size. Overgrips are often utilized as the last layer and are thinner (less than 1 mm). However, many players choose to utilize new grips as the final layer. Towel grips are always used as replacement grips. Overgrips are more convenient for players who change grips frequently because they can be removed more quickly without damaging the underlying material. Replacement grips have an adhesive backing, whereas overgrips have only a small patch of adhesive at the start of the tape and must be applied under tension; overgrips are more convenient for players who change grips frequently because they can be removed more quickly without damaging the underlying material.

 

Shuttlecock

 

A shuttlecock (also known as a birdie) is a high-drag projectile with an open conical shape made up of sixteen overlapping feathers placed in a spherical cork base. The cork is encased in a thin layer of leather or synthetic material. Recreational players frequently utilize synthetic shuttles to save money because feathered shuttles break easily. These nylon shuttles might have a natural cork or synthetic foam base and a plastic skirt.

Badminton regulations also specify how to test a shuttlecock’s speed:

3.1: To put a shuttlecock to the test, hit a complete underhand stroke that makes contact with the shuttlecock over the back boundary line. The shuttlecock must be struck at an upward angle and parallel to the sides. 3.2: A shuttlecock of the proper speed will land no less than 530 mm and no more than 990 mm from the opposite rear boundary line.

 

Badminton Shoes

 

Badminton shoes are lightweight, with rubber or other high-grip, non-marking soles.

Badminton shoes provide limited lateral assistance when compared to running shoes. High degrees of lateral support are advantageous for tasks in which lateral motion is undesired and unanticipated. Badminton, on the other hand, need tremendous lateral movements. In badminton, a heavily built-up lateral support will not protect the foot; instead, it may induce catastrophic collapse at the moment where the shoe’s support fails and the player’s ankles are not prepared for the rapid loading, which can cause sprains. As a result, players should wear badminton shoes rather than general trainers or running shoes, as appropriate badminton shoes have a very thin sole, lower a person’s center of gravity, and so result in fewer injuries. Players should also practice safe and precise footwork, with the knee and foot aligned on all lunges. This is more than simply a safety issue: correct footwork is also required to maneuver around the court successfully.

 

Badminton Technique

 

Strokes

Badminton has a vast range of fundamental strokes, and players must be extremely skilled to execute them all efficiently. All strokes can be performed on either the forehand or backhand. The forehand side of a player is the same as the side of their playing hand: for a right-handed player, the forehand side is their right side, and the backhand side is their left side. Forehand strokes are hit with the front of the hand leading (similar to striking with the palm), whereas backhand strokes are done with the rear of the hand leading (similar to hitting with the palm) (like hitting with the knuckles). Certain strokes are commonly played on the forehand side with a backhand striking movement, and vice versa.

Most strokes can be played equally effectively on either the forehand or backhand side in the forecourt and midcourt; however, in the rear court, players will try to play as many strokes as possible on their forehands, often preferring to play a round-the-head forehand overhead (a forehand “on the backhand side”) rather than attempt a backhand overhead. Playing a backhand overhead has two major drawbacks. To begin, the player must turn their back on their opponents, obscuring their vision of them and the court. Second, backhand overheads cannot be hit with the same power as forehand overheads because the striking action is limited by the shoulder joint, which allows a considerably larger range of movement for a forehand overhead than for a backhand overhead. Most players and coaches regard the backhand clear as the most difficult fundamental stroke in the game, due to the exact technique required to generate enough force for the shuttlecock to go the entire length of the court. Backhand smashes are also weak for the same reason.

 

The shuttlecock’s position and the receiving player

The choice of stroke is determined by how close the shuttlecock is to the net, whether it is above net height, and where an opponent is currently positioned: players have significantly more attacking options if they can reach the shuttlecock well above net height, especially if it is also close to the net. A high shuttlecock in the forecourt will be met with a net kill, striking it steeply downwards and aiming to win the rally quickly. This is why, in this circumstance, it is better to drop the shuttlecock just over the net. A high shuttlecock is generally met at the midcourt with a strong smash, likewise hitting downwards and aiming for an outright winning or a weak reply. Athletic jump smashes, in which players leap higher to create a sharper smash angle, are a regular and dramatic feature of top men’s doubles play. Players in the backcourt try to strike the shuttlecock while it is still above them, rather than allowing it to fall lower. They can play smashes, clears (hitting the shuttlecock high and to the rear of the opponent’s court), and drop shots (striking the shuttlecock gently so that it falls abruptly downwards into the opponent’s forecourt) because of their overhead hitting. A smash is impossible and a full-length, high clear is tough if the shuttlecock has descended lower.

 

The shuttlecock is in a vertical posture.

Players have little choice but to strike upwards when the shuttlecock is considerably below net height. Lifts, in which the shuttlecock is hit upwards to the back of the opposing court, can be played from anywhere on the court. If a player does not lift, their sole choice is to lightly push the shuttlecock back to the net: this is known as a net shot in the forecourt and a push or block in the midcourt or rear court.

When the shuttlecock is close to net height, players may make drives that go flat and quickly over the net towards the opponents’ back midcourt and back court. Pushes can also be struck flatter, putting the shuttlecock in front of the midcourt. Drives and pushes can be played from the midcourt or forecourt and are most commonly employed in doubles: they are an effort to re-establish the attack rather than lifting the shuttlecock and defending against smashes. Following a good drive or push, the opponents are frequently obliged to raise the shuttlecock.

 

Spin

Balls can be spun to change their bounce (for example, topspin and backspin in tennis) or trajectory, and players can slice the ball to generate such spin (hit it with an angled racquet face). Although the shuttlecock is not permitted to bounce, slicing the shuttlecock has applications in badminton. (For an explanation of technical jargon, see Basic strokes.)

Slicing the shuttlecock from the side may cause it to go in a direction other than that indicated by the player’s racquet or body movement. This is used to mislead opponents.

Slicing the shuttlecock from the side may make it to travel a somewhat curved route (as seen from above), and the spin’s deceleration allows sliced strokes to slow down more abruptly near the conclusion of their flight path. This may be utilized to make drop shots and smashes that descend more steeply after passing through the net.

Slicing beneath the shuttlecock when playing a net shot may cause it to roll over (tumble) numerous times as it crosses the net. This is referred to as a spinning net shot or a tumbling net shot. Until the shuttlecock has adjusted its orientation, the opponent will be hesitant to approach it.

A shuttlecock has a small natural spin on its axis of rotational symmetry due to the way its feathers overlap. When dropping a shuttlecock, the spin is counter-clockwise as seen from above. Certain strokes are affected by this natural spin: a falling net shot is more successful if the slicing movement is from right to left than than left to right.

 

Biomechanics

Badminton biomechanics have not been extensively researched, although some studies corroborate the minimal function of the wrist in power generation and show that internal and external rotations of the upper and lower arm contribute significantly to power. As a result, recent athletic instruction manuals emphasize forearm rotation rather than wrist motions.

The feathers add significant drag, forcing the shuttlecock to decelerate significantly over distance. The shuttlecock is also highly aerodynamically stable: regardless of its starting orientation, it will turn to fly cork-first and stay cork-first.

Because of the shuttlecock’s drag, it takes a lot of power to hit it the entire length of the court, which is not the case for other racquet sports. Drag also has an effect on the flight path of a raised (lobbed) shuttlecock: the parabola of its flight is significantly distorted, causing it to fall at a steeper angle than it rises. The shuttlecock may even fall vertically with exceptionally high serves.

 

Other considerations

Players have three main choices when defending against a smash: lift, block, or drive. The most typical response in singles is a block to the net. Lifts are the safest choice in doubles, but they generally enable the opponents to continue smashing; blocks and drives are counter-attacking strokes, but they can be intercepted by the smasher’s partner. Because backhands are more efficient than forehands at covering smashes aimed to the body, many players employ a backhand striking movement for returning smashes on both the forehand and backhand sides. Hard blows to the body are tough to protect against.

The service is governed by the Laws and has its own set of stroke options. Unlike in tennis, the server’s racquet must be pointed downward to deliver the serve, therefore the shuttle must generally be shot upwards to cross over the net. A low serve into the forecourt (similar to a push), a lift to the rear of the service court, or a flat drive serve are all options for the server. Raised serves can be high serves, in which the shuttlecock is lifted so high that it nearly vertically falls at the back of the court, or flick serves, in which the shuttlecock is lifted to a lower height but falls sooner.

 

Deception In Badminton

Once players have mastered these fundamental strokes, they will be able to hit the shuttlecock from and to any section of the court, both strongly and softly as needed. Beyond the fundamentals, though, badminton has a lot of potential for advanced stroke abilities that may give you a competitive advantage. Because badminton players must cover a limited distance as rapidly as possible, many advanced strokes are designed to fool the opponent, so that they are either misled into believing that a different stroke is being played, or forced to postpone their movement until they observe the shuttle’s direction. In badminton, the term “deception” is frequently used in both of these contexts. When a player is really duped, they frequently lose the point right away because they are unable to reverse their course quickly enough to reach the shuttlecock. Experienced players will be aware of the technique and will be cautious not to move too quickly, but the attempted deceit is still beneficial since it causes the opponent to slightly delay their movement. An experienced player may move before the shuttlecock has been hit, anticipating the stroke, to gain an advantage against inferior players whose intended strokes are evident.

The two primary technical techniques that aid in deception are slicing and employing a shorter striking movement. Slicing is accomplished by striking the shuttlecock with an angled racquet face, making it to go in a direction other than that indicated by the body or arm movement. Slicing also causes the shuttlecock to go slower than the arm action would imply. A successful crosscourt sliced drop shot, for example, will utilize a striking motion that resembles a straight clear or a smash, fooling the opponent about the strength and direction of the shuttlecock. Brushing the strings around the shuttlecock during the strike produces a more complex slicing motion. This can be utilized to improve the shuttle’s trajectory by having it dip quicker as it crosses the net; for example, a sliced low serve can go somewhat faster than a regular low serve while landing on the same place. Spinning the shuttlecock is also used to generate spinning net shots (also known as tumbling net shots), in which the shuttlecock spins over multiple times (tumbles) before stabilizing; sometimes the shuttlecock remains inverted rather than tumbling. The major benefit of a spinning net shot is that the opponent will be hesitant to address the shuttlecock until it has stopped tumbling, because striking the feathers will result in an unexpected stroke. Spinning net strokes are crucial for high-level singles players.

Because of the lightweight of contemporary racquets, players may utilize a very short hitting motion for several strokes, allowing them to smash a powerful or soft stroke until the last possible instant. A singles player, for example, may hold their racquet ready for a net shot, but suddenly flick the shuttlecock to the back with a shallow lift when they realize their opponent has moved before the actual shot is performed. A short lift requires less time to reach the ground, and as previously stated, a rally ends when the shuttlecock reaches the ground. This makes it far more difficult for the opponent to cover the entire court than if the lift was struck higher and with a larger, more apparent swing. A short striking action is helpful not just for deception, but it also helps the player to hit strong strokes when they don’t have time for a huge arm swing. A large arm swing is also not recommended in badminton since it makes it more difficult to recover for the following shot in quick exchanges. The use of grip tightening, often known as finger power, is critical to these approaches. Elite players develop finger power to the point that they can hit some power strokes, such as net kills, with a racquet swing of less than 10 centimetres (4 inches).

It is also possible to invert this deceptive approach by indicating a strong stroke then slowing down the striking movement to play a soft stroke. This second kind of deception is more prevalent in the backcourt (for example, drop shots disguised as smashes), whereas the previous approach is more common in the forecourt and midcourt (for example, lifts disguised as net shots).

Slicing and short-hitting acts are not the only ways to deceive. Players can also employ double motion, which involves making an initial racquet movement in one way before withdrawing the racquet to strike in the other direction. Players will frequently use this to lead opponents astray. Typically, the racquet movement is utilized to indicate a straight angle but then play the stroke crosscourt, or vice versa. Triple motion is also conceivable, although it is quite uncommon in actual play. A racquet head fake is a variation to double motion in which the initial motion is continuing but the racquet is rotated during the shot. This causes a smaller shift in direction but takes less time.

 

Badminton Strategy

To win at badminton, players must use a wide range of strokes in the correct conditions. These include everything from strong leaping smashes to delicate falling net returns. Rallies frequently end with a smash, but building up the smash necessitates more delicate strokes. A net shot, for example, might compel the opponent to elevate the shuttlecock, allowing for a smash. If the net shot is tight and falling, the opponent’s lift will not reach the back of the court, making the next smash much more difficult to return.

Deception is also essential. Expert players practice a variety of seemingly identical strokes and utilize slicing to fool their opponents about the speed or direction of the stroke. If an opponent attempts to anticipate the stroke, they may travel in the other direction and be unable to shift their body momentum in time to reach the shuttlecock.

Singles

Because only one person can cover the entire court, singles tactics are centered on making the opponent to move as much as possible; this means that singles strokes are typically directed to the court’s corners. Players take use of the court’s length by mixing lifts and clears with drop shots and net shots. Smashing is less common in singles than in doubles because the smasher lacks a partner to complement their effort and is thus vulnerable to a well-placed return. Furthermore, frequent smashing might be tiring in singles, when energy conservation is essential. Players with good smashes, on the other hand, will occasionally employ the shot to create opportunities, and players frequently smash poor returns to try to finish rallies.

In singles, players would frequently begin a rally with a forehand high serve or a flick serve. Low serves are also commonly employed, either forehand or backhand. Drive serves are uncommon.

Singles require exceptional fitness at the highest levels of competition. Singles, as opposed to doubles, is a game of careful positional maneuvering.

Doubles

Ashwini Ponnappa and Jwala Gutta of India competed in the 2010 BWF World Championships.

Both couples will attempt to gain and sustain the attack, crashing downwards when the chance presents itself. When feasible, a pair will adopt a perfect offensive formation, with one player smashing down from the backcourt and their midcourt partner intercepting all smash returns save the lift. If the attacker in the backcourt hits a drop shot, their partner will move into the forecourt to threaten the net response. If a couple is unable to hit downwards, they will utilize flat strokes to obtain the attack. If a couple is obliged to lift or clear the shuttlecock, they must defend: they will take a side-by-side stance at the back midcourt to cover the whole width of their court from smashes from their opponents. In doubles, players typically smash to the center area between two players to capitalize on confusion and collisions.

At the highest levels of competition, the backhand serve has become so prevalent that forehand serves have become nearly extinct. The straight low serve is most commonly utilized to prevent opponents from seizing the attack quickly. Flick serves are intended to prevent the opponent from predicting and hitting the low serve decisively.

Doubles rallies are exceedingly rapid at high levels of play. Men’s doubles is the most aggressive type of badminton, including a large number of strong jump smashes and lightning-fast reaction exchanges. As a result, audience interest in men’s doubles is frequently higher than in singles.

Mixed Doubles

In mixed doubles, both partners usually aim to keep an aggressive shape with the lady in front and the male in rear. This is due to the fact that male players are often much stronger and can thus deliver more powerful smashes. As a result, mixed doubles necessitate higher tactical awareness and more nuanced positional play. Competitors who are astute will strive to flip the optimum position by pushing the lady to the rear or the guy to the front. To avoid this risk, mixed players must be deliberate and meticulous in their shot selection.

At higher levels of competition, formations will be more flexible: the best female players are capable of playing forcefully from the backcourt and will gladly do so if necessary. When the chance occurs, the duo will revert to the usual mixed offensive posture, with the woman in front and the males in the rear.

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